1 Volume 18 Issue 1

Time Use and Gender Inequality in India: Differences in Employment and Related, Unpaid Domestic, and Caregiving Activities

Pallavi Gupta, Falguni Pattanaik

The objective of this study is to analyze time allocation by gender in ‘employment and related’, ‘unpaid domestic’, and ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities for the individuals representing work in public and private spheres in India. Employing Indian Time-use data 2019, this study examines time distribution of Indian men and women in these activities. Furthermore, the variation in intensity of time allocation due to socio-economic and demographic factors of individuals has been assessed using ordinary least square regression. The study reveals important gender inequalities prevail in the time spent for all the three-activity categories. Indian men devote considerable time in ‘employment and related’ activities whereas Indian women spend more time in the other two activities. The time spent in ‘unpaid domestic’ activities by Indian women is more for those who are less educated, socially marginalized, unemployed, and belong to poorer households whereas ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities are more intensive for women who are highly educated, socially marginalized, not in the labour force and have more children at home. Originality/value : the present study contributes to understanding the disproportionate burden of ‘employment and related’, ‘unpaid domestic’ and ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities and the intersectional dynamics that play a significant role in the allocation of time use across the gender lines using the latest data available in India.


Duet or Solo? An Analysis of Paternal Involvement in Childcare in Korea by Couples’ Co-Participation Perspective

Eunhye Kang

This paper examines father involvement in childcare from the perspective of couples’ co-participation in care tasks and factors associated with fathers’ childcare time performed by fathers alone. Drawing on the Korean Time Use Survey 2014, and a sample of dual-earner parents with preschool aged children, results show that the time spent in childcare alone by the father was considerably less than that of mothers. About 80% of mothers’ total childcare time was performed alone compared with 59.5% for fathers. For routine care, about 64.8% of fathers’ routine care time was performed alone by fathers. OLS regression results indicate that work hours of both mothers and fathers primarily shape the context in which fathers’ sole charge of care tasks occur. The egalitarian gender role attitude fathers hold was found to be another significant determinant of the total amount of time fathers spent on performing care tasks alone and the amount of time fathers spent on performing routine care tasks alone. Level of fathers’ educational attainment did not make differences to their solo care time.


Bringing It All Back Home. Social Class and Educational Stratification of Childcare in Britain, 1961-2015

Giacomo Vagni

Childcare is one of the foundations of human development. An unequal distribution of childcare is an unequal distribution of life chances. This paper investigates the social stratification of parental childcare in the United Kingdom, focusing on class and education, from 1961 to 2015. The study shows that both mothers and fathers have increased their time spent on childcare, with a significant uptick between 1974 and 1983. I find a growing gap in childcare time between mothers with and those without a higher education degree. Regarding social class, the gap in childcare time between professional-class and working-class households has remained relatively constant throughout the period. The paper also explores fathers' involvement in childcare and shows that their childcare time is less stratified compared to mothers. The article discusses the potential mechanisms that could explain the polarisation of childcare in the UK.


Bringing It All Back Home. Social Class and Educational Stratification of Childcare in Britain, 1961-2015. Online Appendix

Giacomo Vagni

Appendix for Giacomo Vagni (2023) Bringing It All Back Home. Social Class and Educational Stratification of Childcare in Britain, 1961-2015, Journal of Time Use Research, 10.32797/jtur-2023-3