Time Use and Gender Inequality in India: Differences in Employment and Related, Unpaid Domestic, and Caregiving Activities

Pallavi Gupta, Falguni Pattanaik

time use; gender inequality; employment and related activities; unpaid domestic activities; unpaid caregiving activities

The objective of this study is to analyze time allocation by gender in ‘employment and related’, ‘unpaid domestic’, and ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities for the individuals representing work in public and private spheres in India. Employing Indian Time-use data 2019, this study examines time distribution of Indian men and women in these activities. Furthermore, the variation in intensity of time allocation due to socio-economic and demographic factors of individuals has been assessed using ordinary least square regression. The study reveals important gender inequalities prevail in the time spent for all the three-activity categories. Indian men devote considerable time in ‘employment and related’ activities whereas Indian women spend more time in the other two activities. The time spent in ‘unpaid domestic’ activities by Indian women is more for those who are less educated, socially marginalized, unemployed, and belong to poorer households whereas ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities are more intensive for women who are highly educated, socially marginalized, not in the labour force and have more children at home. Originality/value : the present study contributes to understanding the disproportionate burden of ‘employment and related’, ‘unpaid domestic’ and ‘unpaid caregiving’ activities and the intersectional dynamics that play a significant role in the allocation of time use across the gender lines using the latest data available in India.